Courtesy of James Ebeling an introduction to some of the basics you should keep in mind RAS
Effective biosecurity systems in tilapia farming will help ensure farmer success.
System management is an ongoing balancing act.
Anytime fish are cultured, they are crowded and they are stressed.
Pure oxygen can simply be injected into pipes leading to the tank.
Oxygenation adds cost to recirculation production, but the benefit is that system production can be increased 50% or more.
There are a variety of ways to get air into water.
Submerged biofilter options are important in RAS.
Wet biofilters have an important role to play.
The oxidation of reduced nitrogen (NH3) by bacteria is a natural process known as nitrification.
Alternatives to granular media filters.
Removing solids is an important part of keeping your RAS in good shape for your fish.
Removal of solid waste in recirculation aquaculture is complicated by the fact that the loosely aggregated fecal material and uneaten food tend to break into small pieces in the water.
Tanks for recirculation aquaculture have been made from a variety of materials.
In a recirculation system, five functions must occur to provide life support for the fish.
Water is, of course, the most important component of any aquaculture operation.
Ammonia exists in two species: un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and ionized ammonium (NH4+), the amount of each type depending on the pH and temperature of the water.
The interplay between the carbon-based life on earth with the physical biosphere results in the profoundly important carbon cycle, which is responsible for everything from the earth's food supply to free oxygen in the atmosphere to global warming.
Air is a mixture of gases (about 80% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 0.035% of carbon dioxide).
The faculty of veterinary sciences of the University of Pretoria has identified Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS), or red spot disease in fish in the Hartbeespoort Dam after fishermen reported ulcers and red spots on fish, as well as abnormal mortalitie